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The context of a System from which it is separated by a System Boundary.

Complex Systems interact interact with their environment to exchange energy, entropy, and information in order to stay in a Non-equilibrium Steady State.

A system and its environment share Affordances – features of the environment that are salient for the system in specific ways.

Causal Emergence

Causation happens between Systems demarcated by System Boundaries, horizontally as well as vertically.

Complex System

A complex system is a Dynamical System that has the following attributes:Derived from Mitchell (2009) and Ladyman & Wiesner (2020).

Every System Is a Model of Its Environment

For a System to have an Implicit Model means embodying “statistical regularities of its world in its physical and functional composition”, which reduces surprise about how its world behaves and helps the system stay in stable states.

Implicit Model

An implicit Model is an evolved, embodied representation of a System’s Environment.


A model is a simplified representation of a System.

Move up and Down in the Hierarchy of Systems

The world is a hierarchy of systems.


Perception is the active sampling a System does of its Environment to validate its Model.

Strategy Is a Learning Process

Strategy is de facto always an iterative learning process, even if this is often not made explicit and information gaps between iterations make it less effective and efficient.

Strategy Is a Pattern of Actions

On an abstract level, Strategy is a set of System activities, structured in a process.

Strategy Is Based on Models

Every Strategy is based on an (implicit or explicit) assessment of the situation, i.

System Boundary

A System boundary is topologically defined as the set of system components which have connections both to other system elements and to its Environment.

Systems Emerge Due to Constraints

Systems or, more precisely, dissipative and autocatalytic structures that are precursors of autonomous, e.