#concept11 mentions

Systems “try to survive” and are differentially well equipped for that, depending in their specific Environment. Selection is just the effect that, in every environment, “what works stays”.This implies that selection is a universal process that also acts on non-living systems (see e.g. Campbell and Price 2019). This is a stronger view than Multi-level Selection.

As a corollary to the systems view of Evolution, we can say that Selection is Bayesian Search.

Darwinian evolution, i.e. variation and selection plus heredity, is one implementation of this Bayesian Search, but can be a range of others, depending on the available infrastructure, e.g. in Cultural Evolution.


Behavioural Disposition

A behavioural disposition is a disposition of a System to behave in a certain way.

Cities Are Innovative Because They Tolerate Crazy People

In contrast to companies, cities generate more Innovation per capita the larger they are because they “tolerate crazy people”Geoffrey West, quoted in Brand (2011).

Cultural Evolution Is Multilevel Meme Variation, Selection and Replication

Cultural Evolution is the change of information capable of affecting individuals’ behavior over time.


Evolution is descent with modification, that is change in the heritable characteristics of populations of individuals over successive generations.


“Fascism“ can refer to a historical political movement and to a political Ideology.

Industrial Agriculture Is a Lying Social System

The Social System of industrial agriculture does not actually do what it says it is doing – it is, in a more than metaphorical sense, lying.

Irrational Behaviour Is Adaptive in Stochastic Environments

Behavioural Dispositions that are individually irrational in the current Environment (due to either random deviation or maladaptation) can improve the chances of a population to adapt to disruptive changes.

Perceived Irrationality Is Rooted in Actual Rationality

Rationality is an evolved strategy.

Rationality Is an Evolved Strategy

It is a fact about our social and epistemic lives that Rationality is a norm that guides our thinking about beliefs and hypotheses; it is a Concept we use to direct thinking and discourse.

Scale Free Abstraction

Scale-free abstractions are a specific type of Shorthand Abstractions: highly general concepts taken from our best current thinking about evolution, cognition, and the world as a hierarchy of systems.

The Extermination of Insects Is Inevitable

Due to significant Selection filters between generations, insects (have evolved to) need a very large number of individuals in each generation to survive as populations and species.