#concept12 mentions

Evolution is descent with modification, that is change in the heritable characteristics of populations of individuals over successive generations.Hall & Hallgrímsson (2007), 4–5

The individuals are Systems, specifically Dynamical Systems and Complex Systems, in their Environments.This implies that evolution is a universal process that also acts on non-living systems. See e.g. Campbell and Price (2019)

Since The world is a hierarchy of systems, this encompasses subatomar particles, atoms, molecules, dissipative structures, cells, organisms, organisations, societies, ecosystems, civilisations, nature, and finally the universe as a whole.

Each of these systems (e.g. an organism) can be described as made up of populations of lower-level systems (e.g. cells).

Thus evolution can be described in three equivalent ways:

In what can be called “Population Thinking”Mayr (1982), 45–57. See also DeLanda (2002).

, we can thus understand

This explication helps us understand Cultural Evolution and e.g. how Cities are innovative because they tolerate crazy people.

If reciprocal selection and different levels of system self-organisation interact, evolution appears as Niche Construction.


Behavioural Disposition

A behavioural disposition is a disposition of a System to behave in a certain way.

Cultural Evolution

Culture is socially transmitted information that affects individuals’ behaviour.


Feelings are expensive, but effective cognitive mechanisms to direct our Attention, experienced via Interoception as bodily sensations.

Irrational Behaviour Is Adaptive in Stochastic Environments

Behavioural Dispositions that are individually irrational in the current Environment (due to either random deviation or maladaptation) can improve the chances of a population to adapt to disruptive changes.

Living System

A living system is a Complex System that actively and autonomously upholds its System Boundary by exchanging energy and information with its Environment, thus “importing” order and staying in a Non-equilibrium Steady State.

Patriarchy Is a Product of Agriculture

Patriarchy is not an inevitable consequence of human nature.

Rationality Is an Evolved Strategy

It is a fact about our social and epistemic lives that Rationality is a norm that guides our thinking about beliefs and hypotheses; it is a Concept we use to direct thinking and discourse.

Selection Is Bayesian Search

As a corollary to the systems view of Evolution, on the level of the system of nature, selection of lower-level systems can be seen as Bayesian search – as an algorithm that metaphorically fills niches and builds bridges of complexity into the void by “looking for” Attractors of nature as a System.


Systems "try to survive" and are differentially well equipped for that, depending in their specific Environment.

Strategy Is a Pattern of Actions

On an abstract level, Strategy is a set of System activities, structured in a process.

Systems Emerge Due to Constraints

Systems or, more precisely, dissipative and autocatalytic structures that are precursors of autonomous, e.

The Extermination of Insects Is Inevitable

Due to significant Selection filters between generations, insects (have evolved to) need a very large number of individuals in each generation to survive as populations and species.