There are three distinct, but connected feedback loops betweenand :
- Productivity enables economic growth, which enables investment,
which increases innovation and productivity, which enables further
- Innovation increases productivity, which reduces need for labour,
which necessitates growth on pain of economic collapseJackson 2017
- Growth exhausts scarce resources which necessitates paradigm
shifts to avoid collapses which lead to further growth.West 2017
This also means delaying and accumulating nature’s feedback and humanity’s maturing in its .
The result is continuous, seemingly unstoppable economic growth, regardless of its negative effects.
- Harari (2014): Sapiens
- Jackson (2017): Prosperity without Growth
- West (2017): Scale